The main source of Islamic teachings is the Koran, which has a number of verses of 6,236, and also As-Sunnah which has hundreds of thousands of hadiths. But how do you draw legal conclusions on a problem in Islamic teachings with so many arguments?
Of course there must be a scientific and standard methodology, and agreed upon by Muslims throughout the ages, and that methodology is jurisprudence.
Fiqih as a scientific discipline in Islam has succeeded in explaining clearly and precisely the laws contained in every piece of verse, and the thousands of hadiths. By mastering the discipline of (tanya jawab fiqih islam) fiqh, the teachings of Islam can be understood correctly, as the Prophet Muhammad taught them.
However, the opposite will happen, if you understand the teachings of Islam only stick to the Koran and Sunnah and ignore the science of fiqh. So what happens is a misuse of the meaning contained in the sources of Islamic law (the Koran and Hadith). Especially verses and hadiths that contain legal implications in them. One example that jurisprudence is a very important tool, to understand Islamic teachings properly is to interpret legal verses contained in the Koran, as well as legal traditions in the hadith books.
In the Koran, there are many verses that explain the law, for example in Q.S Al-Maidah verse 38.
Q.S Al-Maidah verse 38 is an example related to jurisprudence, which is a verse that explains the punishment of cutting off hands for thieves, both men and women. But is it true that all thieves must have their hands cut off? Should all people who commit adultery be stoned? etc.
Fiqh is the largest portion of Islamic teachings, compared to other scientific disciplines such as faith, tasawuf and so on. Problems in jurisprudence occupy the largest portion of Islamic scholarship, this is because matters related to law that are not qath’i in Islamic teachings are dynamic and always developing. Fiqh science is very important to master as a key in understanding the teachings contained in Islam.
It is possible that a Muslim is still considered normal if he cannot master scientific disciplines such as tafsir, hadith, Arabic, ushul fiqh and others. But especially in jurisprudence, every Muslim should know as much as possible. Because this will relate to problems of everyday life, such as worship, mu’amalah and so on. Because there is no way we can worship properly, without knowing the chapter of fiqh of worship.
Understanding Islam is not enough just to use the two main sources of the Koran and Sunnah, but it needs other sources that have been formulated by previous scholars.